We present our work on designing an aggregatable distributed key generation algorithm, which will appear at Eurocrypt 2021. This is joint work with Kobi Gurkan, Philipp Jovanovic, Mary Maller, Sarah Meiklejohn, Gilad Stern, and Alin Tomescu.
What is a Distributed Key Generation Algorithm?
Ever heard of Shamir’s secret sharing algorithm? It’s a classic. The overriding idea is that it is harder to corrupt many people than corrupting one person. Shamir’s secret sharing algorithm ensures that you can only learn a secret if multiple people cooperate. In cryptography, we often want to share a secret key so that we can distribute trust. The secret key might be used to decrypt a database, sign a transaction, or compute some pseudo-randomness.
In a secret sharing scheme, there is a trusted dealer who knows the whole secret, shares it out, and then goes offline. This begs the question: why bother to share the secret in the first place if you have a trusted dealer who knows the whole secret? Often the reason is that the secret sharing scheme is merely being used as an ingredient in a larger distributed key generation algorithm in which nobody knows the full secret. This isn’t always true; certainly, there are cases where a central authority might delegate tasks to workers with less authority. But in the case where there is no central authority, we need a more complete solution.
Continue reading Aggregatable Distributed Key Generation
Three years ago, we made the case against phishing your own employees through simulated phishing campaigns. They do little to improve security: click rates tend to be reduced (temporarily) but not to zero – and each remaining click can enable an attack. They also have a hidden cost in terms of productivity – employees have to spend time processing more emails that are not relevant to their work, and then spend more time pondering whether to act on emails. In a recent paper, Melanie Volkamer and colleagues provided a detailed listing of the pros and cons from the perspectives of security, human factors and law. One of the legal risks was finding yourself in court with one of the 600-pound digital enterprise gorillas for trademark infringement – Facebook objected to their trademark and domain being impersonated. They also likely don’t want their brand to be used in attacks because, contrary to what some vendors tell you, being tricked by your employer is not a pleasant experience. Negative emotions experienced with an event often transfer to anyone or anything associated with it – and negative emotions are not what you want associated with your brand if your business depends on keeping billions of users engaging with your services as often as possible.
Recent tactics employed by the providers of phishing campaigns can only be described as entrapment – to “demonstrate” the need for their services, they create messages that almost everyone will click on. Employees of the Chicago Tribune and GoDaddy, for instance, received emails promising bonuses. Employees had hope of extra pay raised and then cruelly dashed, and on top, were hectored for being careless about phishing. Some employees vented their rage publicly on Twitter, and the companies involved apologised. The negative publicity may eventually be forgotten, but the resentment of employees feeling not only tricked but humiliated and betrayed, will not fade any time soon. The increasing nastiness of entrapment has seen employees targeted with promises of COVID vaccinations from employers – who then find themselves being ridiculed for their gullibility instead of lauded for their willingness to help.
Continue reading Still treating users as the enemy: entrapment and the escalating nastiness of simulated phishing campaigns